The Northern District of California handed down a ruling in Center for Food Safety v. Vilsack, No. C 08-00484 JSW (N.D. Cal September 21, 2009) that would requires the USDA to perform an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) as opposed to an Environmental Assessment (EA) in their determination of whether to deregulate Genetically Modified Sugar Beets (known as Event H7-1). The court procedurally granted plaintiffs' motion for summary judgment and denied Defendants' cross-motion for summary judgment in order to line up its decision with the Geertson Seeds decision out of the Ninth Circuit regarding Roundup Ready Alfalfa.
The actual technology would make the sugar beets glysophate tolerant, which is similar to roundup ready alfalfa technology in the Geertson case. APHIS created an EA in response to the application for deregulation and reached a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). The Court reasoned that the decision not to use the hard look of the EIS was arbitrary and capricious as there was evidence acknowledged by the agency, but cursorily tossed aside, that proved to be "significantly effect" the human environment as stated in the the procedural statute the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) .
The determination of whether an impact is significant will be determined by the context and intensity or severity, as it is defined by factors in 40 CFR 1508.27. The analysis of these will be reviewed by the judiciary under the APA's arbitrary and capricious standard. As stated, the Court found the Agency's conclusory statements regarding severity to deifferent factors arbitrary and capricious and ruled against it.
The evidence the court pointed to was the difference in opinion regarding length of time sugar beet pollen that can be carried by wind or animals was viable and the distance it could travel. In the related point that the Court considered significant was the socioeconomic effect on organic farmers or simply non-GMO farmers if genetic drift were to occur and consumer choice, if there is a significant limit of non-GMO sugar beets used in the market. Defedants countered that there was no real organic sugar beet market and that they simply do not have to take socioeconomic factors into the analysis of whether to issue an EIS. Obviously, the counter-arguments did not win the day. The Court reasoned that the socioeconomic and consumer choice factors were interrelated, if not a diresult of, the environmental factors that must be considered, and therefore carry as much weight.
Simple to this analysis is that consumer choice will be taken into account in the Ninth Circuit (if not elsewhere based on the focus of natural and organic products), and the skepticim especially abroad of GMO seeds should send a message to just use the EIS and scrap the EA in assessing deregulation possibility as of right now.